fevereiro 17, 2010

As Ilhas (1)

A Ilha Mãe
«E com os olhos cheios de lágrimas fitava o mar nunca vindimado. No Canto V da Odisseia, onde começa realmente o périplo de Ulisses - os quatro primeiros capítulos traçam o itenerário do seu filho Telémaco -, o herói não pára de interrogar o horizonte. Retido pela ninfa Calipso, generosa e apaixonada, sonha, ainda assim, com a sua Ítaca, a sua pátria, a sua ilha. Essa obsessão do regresso transformará para sempre Ítaca no símboço da mãe pátria. Ítaca, ilha matriz. O nome de Ulisses, invocado como a imagem do regresso feliz, está presente em Joaquim du Bellay, mas, igualmente, no quarto livro das Memórias d´além da Campa, de Chateaubriand. Entretanto, com o tempo, as trompetas de Il Ritorno di Ulisse in Patria (que ressoam na ópera de Monteverdi, em 1641) passaram a vibrar num tom bem diferente: na leitura feita por uma certa modernidade, o retorno torna-se sangrento. Assim, no seu Ulisses, peça de 1928, Nikos Kazantzakis descreve uma personagem ciclotímica totalmente apostada em massacrar os pretendentes - mesmo argumento em Gehart Hauptamann, dramaturgo alemão do período entre guerras. As leituras mais contemporâneas - e freudianas - da Odisseia contestam até a visão de uma fidelidade a uma terra e a uma família insusbtituíveis ... Jean Giono, em Aux origines de l´Odyssée (1938), sugere que essa longa errância foi forjada por Ulisses para justificar, a posteriori, a sua ausência a Penélope ... A Ilha-mãe está, ainda, no cerne de O Desprezo de Alberto Moravia: um jovem argumentista que trabalha numa adaptação da obra de Homero é testemunha do diferendo entre o produtor e o encenador, cujas leituras do texto são radicalmente opostas. Para um trata-se dum périplo iniciático, da travessia de desafio em desafio no fito de reeencontrar uma ilha matricial, enquanto o encenador defende que a Odisseia não passa da metáfora de um desamor. E é, precisamente, essa interpretação que subjaz, também, ao Ulisses de Joyce, com as deambulações de Leopold Bloom a menterem-no afastado da sua esposa, Molly.»
(texto de Clémence Boulouque; Lire, Junho 2004; Trad. de João Carlos Barradas)

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